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Courses

BVS 511: Applied Biomedical Science. (3 credit hours) 

Three lecture hours per week. This course integrates a review and clinical applications of Biochemistry, Genetics, Immunology and Microbiology. Clinically important aspects of biochemistry and microbiology as it relates to normal and abnormal vision function are presented. Basic and clinical aspects of bacteriology, virology, mycology and parasitology are covered. Infections of the eye are discussed in relation to techniques for laboratory isolation, culturing and identification of the infectious agents. The genetic component of this course introduces the fundamental concepts of molecular genetics through an understanding of DNA, RNA, mRNA and tRNA. Immunology content introduces the types of immunity in humans. Allergies are presented with emphasis on those allergies important to optometrists. The response of the normal human immune system to infection and the collapse of the immune system during the development of AIDS is included.

BVS 513: Neurophysiology. (4.5 credit hours)

Three lecture hours and three laboratory hours per week. This course presents the study of the central nervous system, including cellular neurophysiology, organization of sensory pathways, voluntary control of movement and the physiology of central visual pathways. Laboratory instruction includes the gross and microscopic anatomy of the nervous system, the study of the major sensory and motor pathways of the brain, as well as discussion of the clinical correlations of neuro-anatomical structure.

BVS 515: Pharmacology I. (3 credit hours)

Three lecture hours per week. This fundamental course in pharmacology introduces the student to basic concepts of drug effects on the body organs and systems, including the eye. The pharmacological actions, mechanisms, clinical applications and potential adverse effects of systemic drugs in current clinical use are considered in detail.

BVS 530 Ocular Anatomy and Physiology I. (4 credit hours)

Three lecture hours and two laboratory hours per week. This course presents a systematic study of the anatomy and physiology of the eye. Lecture topics include the structure and function of the head and neck, ocular orbit, lids, lacrimal apparatus, conjunctiva, and cornea. Topics are approached from a gross anatomical, physiological, histological, and embryological perspectives within the scope of contemporary primary care optometric practice.

BVS 531: Ocular Anatomy and Physiology II. (4 credit hours)

Three lecture hours and two laboratory hours per week. This course presents a systematic study of the anatomy and physiology of the eye. Lecture topics include the structure and function of the uveal tract, intraocular fluids, lens, retina and optic nerve. Topics are approached from a gross anatomical, physiological, histological, and embryological perspectives within the scope of contemporary primary care optometric practice.

BVS 540: Optics I. (5 credit hours)

Four lecture hours and two laboratory hours per week. This course is an introduction to the geometrical optics of prisms, mirrors and lenses. Emphasis is placed on the characteristics of optical images formed by these basic elements and their combinations. Applications of the subject matter to vision and clinical optometry are discussed. 

BVS541: Optics II. (5 credit hours) 

Four lecture hours and two laboratory hours per week. This course presents advanced topics in geometrical optics and an introduction to physical optics. Of primary interest are optical instruments and their properties, chromatic and monochromatic aberrations, interference, diffraction and polarization. Applications to vision science and clinical optometry are discussed.

BVS 542: Ophthalmic Optics I. (3 credit hours) 

Two lecture hours and two laboratory hours per week. This introductory course in ophthalmic prescription measurement includes the use of instruments to design and measure spherical and cylindrical lens powers, as well as the determination of surface powers and base curves. The course emphasizes the basic calculation principles and use of ophthalmic lens measuring devices.

BVS 550: Eye Movements. (4.25 credit hours)

Three and one-half lecture hours and one and one-half laboratory hours per week. Eye movements are described with an emphasis on their functional characteristics. The anatomy and physiology of the extra-ocular muscles and the various neural pathways serving eye movements are presented within a framework of the functions they serve. Emphasis is placed on the basic oculomotor kinematics that will be necessary for clinical interpretation of eye movement disorders. Classes of eye movements that are considered in detail include vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic eye movements, pursuits, saccades, vergence, fixational eye movements and reading eye movements. 

BVS 551: Visual Optics. (4 credit hours)

Three and one-half lecture hours and one laboratory hour per week. The eye is studied as the physiological optical element of the visual system. The optical components of the eye are discussed in terms of their geometrical, physical, physiological, psychophysical and optical properties. The eye is considered as an image-forming mechanism, where each component contributes to the nature and quality of the retinal image. The relationship between optics and visual performance is discussed, including the effects of ametropias and oculomotor systems on vision. 

BVS 552: Visual Psychophysics. (4.25 credit hours)

Three and one-half lecture hours and one and one-half laboratory hours per week. This course is concerned with the study of visual stimuli and the response they evoke in the human organism. Included are the principles of photometry and radiometry as well as topics related to the visual response to light stimuli such as intensity discrimination, light and dark adaptation, visual acuity and the psychophysical methods used to investigate these aspects of the human visual system. 

BVS 616/617/618: Pharmacology II/III/IV. (2 credit hours/2 credit hours/2 credit hours)

This course presents the pharmacology of systemic and ocular drugs used for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The pharmacological actions, mechanisms, clinical applications and potential adverse effects of systemic drugs that are important to optometrists are discussed in detail.

BVS 640: Ophthalmic Optics II. (3 credit hours)

Two lecture hours and two laboratory hours per week. This course presents the optical principles and concepts of ophthalmic lens parameters and characteristics including lens thickness, impact resistance, multifocal design, absorptive tints and coatings, lens power effectivity and lens magnification. Clinical applications of specific lens designs for occupational use and for compensation of prismatic imbalance are also discussed. The laboratory includes instruction in the fitting and adjusting of ophthalmic frames and eyewear

BVS 650: Sensory Vision. (4.25 credit hours)

Three and one-half lecture hours and one and one-half laboratory hours per week. This course emphasizes the fundamentals of color vision and contrast sensitivity (spatial and temporal). Additionally, the differences in the vision function in the infant and geriatric visual systems are discussed with application to clinical care. The subject matter is explored both from the basic anatomical and physiological mechanisms involved in these sensory processes, as well as the clinical tests and procedures used to evaluate them. Clinical proficiency in the diagnosis and management of color vision deficiencies, as well as contrast sensitivity testing is expected after successful completion of this course. 

BVS 651: Binocular Vision and Space Perception. (3.5 credit hours)

Three lecture hours and two laboratory hours per week. This fundamental course in theoretical binocular vision discusses, in detail, topics such as physical and perceived space, the horopter, retinal correspondence, fusion, fixation disparity and stereopsis. Clinical relevancy of these fundamental concepts is emphasized. Additional topics concerned with visual perception will be presented including perception of size, visual direction and visual attention. Information processing theory will be used to develop a model for visual perception. Various clinical and visual phenomena including figure ground relationships, visual illusions and neurological deficits will be used to illustrate the model. 

CLS 400: IPE Medical Spanish. (2 credit hours)

This interprofessional team-taught elective course is designed to develop and/or improve students' communication in clinical situations with patients whose native language is Spanish. The focus of the instruction will be on learning basic conversation skills in order to elicit clinical histories, conduct an examination, and give oral instructions to Spanish speaking patients. Students will also be exposed to pertinent information about Latino culture as it pertains to medical care. Students will participate in language tasks through listening and speaking. 

CLS 401: IPE Medical Ethics. (1.5 credit hours)

This interprofessional team-taught course introduces ethical theory and presents case studies that are commonplace in clinical professional practice. The lecture sequence that includes scope of practice, ethical theories, state regulations and clinical examples is supplemented with student led group discussions of case studies using a problem-based learning format. Students examine and address issues by applying ethical theory and values to resolving situations that challenge practitioners. Ethical issues dealing with confidentiality, professional referrals, advertising, record keeping, informed consent and conflicts of interest are presented in class and discussion groups. 

CLS 402: Evidence-Based Practice. (2 credit hours)

Two lecture hours per week. The overall goal of this course is to prepare the future practitioner for life-long learning in the profession. Principles of evidence-based medicine are presented to allow evaluation of literature and other media relative to diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in patient care. Included in the course material are fundamental concepts in sampling, study design, sample size and power estimates, bias, validity, confounding, hypothesis testing and an overview of data types and statistical tests appropriate for clinical studies. Quantitative epidemiology approaches are presented such as incidence, prevalence, relative risk and odds ratio to determine evaluation of patient risk relative to ocular conditions and the efficacy of potential therapeutic approaches. 

CLS 403: IPE Population and Public Health. (2 credit hours)

This interprofessional team-taught course is designed to develop a foundational understanding of Public Health and its core functions of assessment, policy development and assurance. In addition the aim is to develop patient communication and educational skills for a culturally diverse patient population to address concepts of health promotion and disease prevention. Evidence-based recommendations for health promotion and disease prevention will be emphasized. Lectures, group activities, workshops, and simulations will be used to discuss and apply the concepts of disease prevention and health promotion. 

CLS 404: IPE Interprofessional Case Conferences. (0.75 credit hours)

This interprofessional team-taught course introduces interprofessional collaboration, communication and teamwork through small group discussion of clinical cases that are well suited for all the health professions. Students will examine the clinical cases from their professional perspective and will learn from other health professions students about their professional roles and responsibilities within the context of the case studies. The course is facilitated by an interprofessional team of faculty members who will guide the small group discussions.

CLS 560: Clinical Methods I. (4.5 credit hours)

Three lecture hours and three laboratory hours per week. This course is the first in a series that presents the basic clinical tests and procedures comprising a comprehensive primary eye care examination. The content of this course includes the principles and clinical methods for entrance testing and clinical refraction. The laboratory provides demonstration and practice of these clinical methods. 

CLS 561: Clinical Methods II. (4.5 credit hours)

Three lecture hours and three laboratory hours per week. This course is a continuation of Clinical Methods I and emphasizes the principles and clinical methods for patient interviewing, history taking, assessment of binocular vision and accommodation and selected ocular health procedures. The laboratory provides demonstration and practice of these clinical methods. 

CLS 660A/660B: Ocular Health Procedures IA/IB. (3 credit hours/3 credit hours)

One and one-half lecture hours and three laboratory hours per week. This course presents basic procedures and techniques in ocular health assessment for the primary care optometrist. The principles, performance and interpretation of various health assessment procedures utilized in clinical practice are discussed. A systematic, problem-oriented approach to the diagnostic evaluation of the eye and neuro-visual system is emphasized. Standards of care and medico-legal issues in ocular health assessment are presented along with insurance codes and reimbursement guidelines. The laboratory provides experience in the use of these procedures, as well as the clinical utilization of pharmaceutical agents commonly used in primary care optometric practice. The laboratory requires that students actively participate as doctors and patients while learning these procedures. 

CLS 661: Case Analysis and Prescribing I. 2 credit hours

Two lecture hours and one discussion hour per week. This course introduces the principles and concepts of clinical case analysis and prescribing. The topics presented include graphical analysis of accommodation and vergence, prescribing guidelines, clinical problem solving, decision making, record keeping, assessment of accommodation disorders, computer vision syndrome and the comprehensive case history. The discussion sessions include the study of sample clinical cases with respect to analysis of clinical findings and prescribing options. 

CLS 662: Case Analysis and Prescribing II. (2 credit hours)

Two lecture hours per week. This course is designed to enable the student to confidently work-up, analyze and manage clinical cases. The use of scientific principles and epidemiology to review patient history, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses to arrive at a clinical diagnosis and management is stressed. Students are taught the art and science of prescribing lenses and prisms for ametropias, presbyopia and binocular anomalies. Emphasis is placed on consideration of occupational, avocational and safety factors in determining a treatment and management plan. 

CLS 663: Ocular Health Procedures II. (3.5 credit hours)

Two lecture hours and three laboratory hours per week. Clinical procedures used in the assessment, diagnosis, treatment and management of ocular disease, such as anterior segment eye disorders, retinal disease, the glaucomas and the ocular manifestations of systemic disease, are presented in this course. Emphasis is placed on the appropriate integration of the procedures in the ocular health examination. The laboratory solidifies the competence of the techniques utilized in the effective treatment and management of ocular disease.

CLS 664A/664B: Ocular Disease Diagnosis and Management IA/B. (2 credit hours/2 credit hours)

Two lecture hours per week. This course presents a comprehensive discussion of anterior segment diseases and disorders. Pathophysiology of ocular tissues is related to the disease processes to provide a strong understanding of the ocular disease presentation and patient symptomology. Clinical cases are presented to enhance student learning. Clinical and laboratory evaluation is discussed along with the diagnosis, treatment and management of anterior segment diseases. Current management strategies will emphasize the utilization of appropriate therapeutic agents and modalities for proper follow-up care. Selected readings help to emphasize current thoughts on treatment and management. 

CLS 665: Case Analysis and Prescribing III. (2 credit hours)

Two lecture hours per week. This course is designed to support the student’s clinical decision making from the classroom to the clinic. Integration and application of knowledge is stressed in the formulation of a clinical diagnosis and management.

CLS 670: Cornea and Contact Lenses I. (4 credit hours)

Three lecture hours and two laboratory hours per week. The basic characteristics and design features of gas permeable contact lenses are presented. Topics addressed in this course include lens fabrication, verification and analysis, contact lens optics and fluorescein pattern interpretation. Approaches to fitting gas permeable contact lenses considering the contributions of corneal topography, refraction, overrefraction and tear lens calculations are demonstrated. Care of gas permeable contact lens patients and the anatomical and physiological changes associated with adaptation and long-term wear are discussed. 

CLS 671: Cornea and Contact Lenses II. (3.5 credit hours)

Two lecture hours and three laboratory hours per week. Continuing applications of gas permeable contact lens fitting and management are presented gas permeable lens modification and gas permeable toric lens indications, optics and analysis are covered in both lecture and laboratory. Soft contact lens materials including silicone-hydrogels, soft contact lens fit assessment and patient management are taught. Management options for presbyopia with single vision and multifocal contact lenses are presented. Contact lens wear complications and management options are discussed. Contact lens prescribing strategies and patient cases are presented. Refractive surgery patient selection, available surgical procedures and co-management are discussed. 

CLS 672: Management of Non-Strabismic Binocular Vision Conditions. (3.5 credit hours)

Two lecture hours and three laboratory hours per week. This course will cover the diagnosis and management of non-strabismic binocular vision conditions including anomalies of the vergence, accommodation and ocular motor systems. Lecture topics include the clinical evaluation, case analysis, diagnosis and management of these systems. A range of treatment options will be discussed, including lenses, prisms and vision therapy. Office-based vision therapy utilizing a sequential approach will be emphasized. 

CLS 760: Pediatric Optometry. (2 credit hours)

Two lecture hours per week. The diagnosis and management of common vision problems in young children requires an understanding of vision development, as well as the utilization of diagnostic procedures that are developmentally appropriate. This course provides diagnostic strategies for examining the infant, toddler and preschooler. Application of pediatric tests for special needs children is presented, as well as the implication of ocular health on normal visual development. Finally, management of common vision problems in the pediatric population is presented in a case discussion format. 

CLS 762A: Ocular Disease Diagnosis and Management IIA. (3 credit hours)

Three lecture hours per week. The evaluation, diagnosis, treatment and management of diseases of the optic nerve and the glaucomas are presented. Emphasis is placed on understanding the disease process and the clinical presentation and appropriate use of diagnostic modalities, including new technologies. Therapeutic strategies emphasize medical and surgical management, co-management and follow-up care. Medico-legal issues, patient education and standards of care are presented including record keeping, coding and reimbursement guidelines. 

CLS 762B: Ocular Disease Diagnosis and Management IIB (2 credit hours)

Two lecture hours per week. This course series will detail the basic anatomy and physiology of posterior segment structures (vitreous, retina choroid) and then familiarize students with the pathophysiology, presentation, diagnosis, and clinical management of ocular diseases that manifest there. Ancillary testing important to managing these conditions such as spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and fluorescein angiography (FANG) will also be introduced and reviewed, with an emphasis being placed on the structural and functional relationships of these tests. 

CLS 763A Ocular Disease Diagnosis and Management IIIA. (2 credit hours)

Two lecture hours per week. The course covers ocular complications associated with systemic disease. The lectures emphasize the diagnosis, treatment and management of the ocular sequela of systemic diseases as well as ocular signs that may preempt the onset of the systemic disease. Areas of emphasis include neurology, orbitopathy, endocrinology and connective tissue disorders. 

CLS 763B Ocular Disease Diagnosis and Management IIIB. (2 credit hours)

Two lecture hours per week. The course covers ocular complications associated with systemic disease. The lectures emphasize the diagnosis, treatment and management of the ocular sequela of systemic diseases as well as ocular signs that may preempt the onset of the systemic disease. Areas of emphasis include uveitic syndromes, rheumatology, AIDS and ocular emergencies. Optometric co-management with internal medicine and medical subspecialties is emphasized. 

CLS 764: Ocular Health Procedures III. (2.5 credit hours)

Two lecture hours and one laboratory hour per week. The purpose of this course is for the student to become knowledgeable in the protocol of advanced complex diagnostic and therapeutic clinical procedures involving ocular disease conditions. Special emphasis is placed on the indications and procedural application of anterior and posterior segment lasers, ocular imaging devices, neuro-imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic injections and ocular surgical procedures. 

CLS 765: Ocular Disease Case Management. (1 credit hours)

Two discussion hours per week. The purpose of this course is to effectively integrate the information presented in the prior ocular disease courses. Utilizing an interactive, small group case discussion format, students will be able to enhance their abilities in proper differential diagnosis, testing protocol, treatment and management and patient education of conditions related to ocular disease. 

CLS 766: Advanced Clinical Topics. (1.5 credit hours)

One and one-half lecture hours per week. The purpose of this course is to present ophthalmic surgical procedures and advanced imaging techniques that are commonly encountered in practice. Special emphasis is placed on pre-operative patient selection, variations of surgical procedures and assessment of normal and complicated post-surgical outcomes. Ordering and interpretation of imaging techniques will also be presented. 

CLS 770: Cornea and Contact Lenses III. (3.25 credit hours)

Three lecture hours per week and six laboratory hours per quarter. Advanced and more complex contact lens designs and fitting options are reviewed. Topics include management of astigmatism with gas permeable toric lenses and contact lens management of special corneal topographies such as those found with post-surgical corneas, post-traumatic corneas, keratoconus and orthokeratology patients. Large diameter and scleral contact lens indications and prescribing are covered. Contact lens care of pediatric patients is discussed. Myopia control including orthokeratology is presented. A description of corneal dystrophies and degenerations including contact lens options and treatment plans is included. Discussion of the physiologic impact of contact lenses on the cornea is presented in increased depth. Diagnosis, treatment and management of contact lens related complications in various lens wear modalities are described. Patient cases are presented to assist the student in applying their classroom knowledge to patient care. This course also includes the advanced topic of ocular prosthetics. The care, fitting and management of ocular prosthetic devices are presented and discussed. There is a hands-on laboratory covering the procedures and techniques used in fitting, creation and fabrication of various ocular prosthetic devices. 

CLS 771: Vision, Perception and Learning. (4 credit hours)

Three lecture hours and two laboratory hours per week. The course will give the student a systematic approach for the diagnosis and management of Developmental Visual Information Processing disorders. The role of the optometrist as part of a multidisciplinary team in evaluating children with learning disabilities will be emphasized. The course will provide a review of child development, principles of standardized testing, learning disabilities and dyslexia. The purpose of the tests used in the DVIP profile will be discussed along with relating specific disorders to symptoms that are found in the case history. Finally, a sequential management plan for treating patients with DVIP dysfunction will be presented.

CLS 772: Strabismus and Amblyopia Diagnosis. (4.5 credit hours)

Three lecture hours and three laboratory hours per week. The evaluation of patients presenting with strabismus and/or amblyopia is discussed. A sequential examination strategy is presented with emphasis on the administration and interpretation of diagnostic testing procedures to arrive at an accurate diagnostic summary. Etiology, prevalence and characteristics of the more common types of strabismus and amblyopia are highlighted. Communication of prognostic and diagnostic outcomes with parents, patients and other health care professionals is discussed. 

CLS 773: Strabismus and Amblyopia Management. (3 credit hours)

Three lecture hours per week. Clinical management of patients with strabismus and/or amblyopia is discussed. Sequential treatment programs, including the use of lenses, prisms, occlusion, active vision therapy and appropriate surgical referrals for prevalent types of strabismus and amblyopia are presented. Emphasis is placed on early treatment, prevention and elimination of anomalous sensorimotor fusion, as well as the reestablishment of efficient binocular vision. 

CLS 774: Low Vision Rehabilitation. (4 credit hours)

Three lecture hours and two laboratory hours per week. The topics presented include the performance characteristics of optical and nonoptical treatment options for the visually impaired; assessment, treatment and management of geriatric and visually impaired patients; development of a vision rehabilitation plan; the multi-disciplinary team approach to rehabilitation; patient communication and education; management of special populations; and practice management considerations. The laboratory presents the performance characteristics and clinical application of optical and non-optical treatment options for visual impairment. 

CLS 775: Cornea and Contact Lenses IV. (1.5 credit hours)

Two laboratory hours and two clinic hours per week. This course consists of contact lens seminars and grand rounds. The major topic areas for student discussions and grand rounds patient presentations include management of regular and irregular astigmatism, presbyopia, irregular corneas such as keratoconus and pellucid marginal degeneration, management of orthokeratology and post-surgical corneas as well as prosthetics and dry eye. This course is designed for students to present patient cases and to submit a written case report. 

CLS 780: Practice Management II. (2 credit hours)

Two lecture hours per week. This course coincides with the introduction of students to patient care in a clinical setting. Emphasis is placed on enhancing a student’s interpersonal skills and professionalism as part of patient care. Using a seminar or workshop format, emphasis is placed on the ethical implications of professional practice. Doctor-patient communication methods are practiced and clinicians are taught how to enable patients to fully evaluate the consequences of various treatment and management options. The business concepts of staff management, public relations and practice marketing, patient retention, recall and office production monitoring are presented. Clinico-legal aspects from record keeping, patient confidentiality, documentation, coding and billing, record release and Americans with Disabilities Act issues are also covered.

CLS 781: Practice Management III. (2 credit hours)

Two lecture hours per week. This course is designed to provide educational information and exercises that facilitate the acquisition of knowledge and skills necessary for entering independent practice. Students will be taught modern business principles and be able to select their preferred mode of practice. The desired outcome of the course is that the student will be able to select and enter the best practice situation to meet his or her personal goals upon graduation. Each student will prepare a loan proposal to secure funding for the practice opportunity chosen. 

CLS 782: Health Promotion. (1 credit hours)

One lecture hours per week. The course provides students with an understanding of the optometrist’s role in health promotion. Program planning, implementation and evaluation of health promotion activities are discussed. Students are given the opportunity to participate in the creation of a community-based project of their choosing to gain firsthand experience in public health optometry. 

CLE 590: Optometric Clinical Service I. (0.75 credit hours)

This introductory course is designed to present the basics of case history and clinical decision-making in a problem-based learning curriculum. Interns also participate in clinical observations to gain an understanding of direct patient care in an academic setting.

CLE 690: Optometric Clinical Service III. (0.75 credit hours)

Three clinic hours per week. This course is designed to provide practical, clinical experience within Ketchum Health and external programs. Students gain clinical experience through clinical proficiencies and direct patient care under the supervision of licensed optometrists within the Primary Care Service. 

CLE691: Optometric Clinical Service IV. (1 credit hours)

Four clinic hours per week. Student interns will provide comprehensive primary care examinations to the limits of their education under the direct supervision of faculty preceptors at Ketchum Health. Student interns provide primary vision care utilizing all procedures learned in the preceding pre-clinical courses. 

CLE 692: Optometric Clinical Service V. (1 credit hours)

Four clinic hours per week. Student interns are assigned to the Primary Care Service in Ketchum Health to conduct full-scope comprehensive eye examinations under the direct supervision faculty preceptors. Additionally, optical dispensing experiences and observations in other clinic services will prepare students for their multi-disciplinary summer internship. 

CLE 790: Optometric Clinical Service VI. (3.5 credit hours)

Fourteen clinic hours per week. Student interns are assigned to patient care at Ketchum Health. Emphasis is placed on optometric examination skills and the utilization of problem-oriented records in all services. Demonstrations of differential diagnostic treatment and management techniques in ocular disease and special testing methods are provided. Diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceutical agents are utilized in all clinical services under the direct supervision of licensed optometric faculty and/or board-certified ophthalmologists. Completion of a certified course in cardiopulmonary resuscitation is required during this quarter. 

CLE 791: Optometric Clinical Services VII. (3.5 credit hours)

Fourteen clinic hours per week. Student interns are assigned to patient care at Ketchum Health. Emphasis is placed on the use of the problem-oriented examination and technical proficiency in evaluating the visual system. Diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceutical agents are utilized in all clinical services under the direct supervision of licensed optometric faculty and/or board-certified ophthalmologists.

CLE792: Optometric Clinical Service VIII. (3.5 credit hours)

Fourteen clinic hours per week. Student interns are assigned to patient care at Ketchum Health. Emphasis is placed on the use of the problem-oriented examination and technical proficiency in evaluating the visual system. Diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceutical agents are utilized in all clinical services under the direct supervision of licensed optometric faculty and/or board-certified ophthalmologists.

CLE793: Optometric Clinical Service IX. (3.5 credit hours)

Fourteen clinic hours per week. Student interns are assigned to patient care at Ketchum Health. Emphasis is placed on differential diagnosis of visual and ocular conditions, case analysis, recommendations for treatment, management, continuing care and referral criteria. Diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceutical agents are utilized in all clinical services under the direct supervision of licensed optometric faculty and/or board-certified ophthalmologists. 

CLE 890: Clinical Seminars. (4 credit hours)

Forty seminar hours per year. This seminar series is presented as a weekly program during each clinic rotation at Ketchum Health. The seminars highlight patient care topics including, but not limited to primary care, contact lenses, vision therapy, low vision rehabilitation, ocular therapeutics, practice management and career preparation. Basic science and clinical science concepts are integrated within the context of these topics. The format of the seminar program includes lectures, workshops, laboratories, grand rounds, demonstrations and small group discussions.

CLE 891: Optometric Clinical Service X. (12 units)

Forty-eight clinic hours per week for a twelve-week rotation. Student interns continue outpatient care assignments in the Primary Care, Optical, Cornea and Contact Lenses, Pediatric Optometry, Vision Therapy, Low Vision Rehabilitation and Chronic Care, Special Testing and Ophthalmology Consultation Services at Ketchum Health. Emphasis is placed on differential diagnosis of eye conditions, case analysis, treatment, patient management and efficient problem-solving skills. Quality assurance by record review and direct patient care experience is emphasized. Diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceutical agents are utilized in all clinical services under the direct supervision of licensed optometric faculty and/or board-certified ophthalmologists. Students also participate in school screening programs and rotate through specialty clinical practices. 

CLE 892: Outreach Clinical Service I. (12 credit hours)

Forty-eight clinic hours per week in the off-campus Outreach Clinical program. 

CLE 893: Outreach Clinical Service II. (12 credit hours)

Forty-eight clinic hours per week in the off-campus Outreach Clinical program. 

CLE 894: Outreach Clinical Service III. (12 credit hours)

Forty-eight clinic hours per week in the off-campus Outreach Clinical program.

The fourth professional year is designed to promote continued development of the student’s emerging clinical problemsolving abilities. The focus is on higher order cognitive thought processing such as analysis and evaluation, rather than basic levels of knowledge and comprehension. The instruction material is designed to advance the student’s content knowledge beyond the first three years through challenging patient care problems that highlight or emphasize differential diagnosis, management decisions, referral decisions and follow-up, as well as address newer techniques and procedures for diagnosis and management. The outreach clinical programs provide students with comprehensive clinical education in the diagnosis, management and treatment of conditions of the visual system. Patient groups served are diverse in age, race, culture, socio-economic level and health delivery systems. Patient care is provided in various settings including optometric and co-management centers; Department of Veterans Affairs centers; HMOs; military; public health and USPH Indian Health clinics; medical ambulatory clinics; community health centers; and general and specialty hospitals. Under direct supervision of licensed optometric faculty, students provide full-scope optometric care in specialty clinics. Interdisciplinary team training in vision rehabilitation and primary care educate students for the role of optometrists as vital members of the health care team. Advanced clinical instrumentation and both diagnostic and therapeutic pharmaceutical agents are utilized, in all clinical care settings, under the direct supervision of licensed optometric faculty and/or board-certified ophthalmologists.

To offer fourth-year students a wide variety of clinical educational experiences, SCCO has approximately 40 primary and 65 alternate outreach clinical program affiliations with various military, public health, Department of Veterans Affairs, low vision rehabilitation, developmental/pediatric clinics, co-management clinics, inter-professional clinics and private practices. The clinics are located throughout the U.S., with the majority located west of the Mississippi River, as well as international sites located in Japan. These clinical programs are operated in conjunction with a number of independent, local, state and federal agencies. Students select their outreach assignments at the beginning of the third professional year, which allows for a full year of planning.